New GMO Studies Demonstrate ‘Substantial Non-Equivalence’

========================================================New GMO Studies Demonstrate ‘Substantial Non-Equivalence’########################################################Studies document substantial differences of their conventional non-GM counterparts, exposing a permissive regulatoryregime that has failed miserably in protecting public health andbiodiversity Dr Eva SirinathsinghjiSeveral new studies carried out by scientists independent of the biotechindustry are showing up glaring differences between GMOs and their non-GMO‘Substantial Equivalence’ which has facilitated approvals of GMOs withpractically no protection for public health and the environment [1] (see [2]The Principle of Substantial equivalence is Unscientific and Arbitrary, ISISnews).The The concept of ‘Substantial Equivalence’ was first introduced in 1993 by theOrganisation for trade organisation, not a public health body.  The principle states that ifa new food is found to be substantially equivalent to an already existingfood product, it can be treated the same way as the existing product withrespect to safety. This concept has greatly benefited the trade of GMproduce, allowing it to effectively bypass regulatory requirements thatwould apply to novel food and other products including novel chemicalcompounds, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and food additives, all of whichrequire a range of toxicological tests and can be subject to legallimitations on safe consumption/intake.Regulatory agencies including the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Japan’s Ministry of generally base their GM food safety regulations on substantial equivalence.There are many good reasons for consumers to feel unprotected by theseregulatory policies, not least because the principle itself is designed tobe as flexible and open to interpretation for the approval of just about anyand every GMO submitted. In practice, the principle allows the comparison ofa GM line to any existing variety within the same species, and even to anabstract entity made up of ingredients from a collection of species. Thismeans that a GM variety can have all the worst traits of many differentvarieties and still be deemed substantially equivalent [1, 2]. Traits usedfor comparisons are also based solely on gross and insensitive chemicalcompositional tests such as levels of carbohydrate, protein and sugars. Thisprocess cannot even begin to tackle safety issues. Ironically, for the GMOsto be patentable as they are, a clear novelty, i.e., a difference ornon-substantial equivalence is indeed required.Independent assessments of substantial equivalence have shown how this ill-defined practice is not only inadequate but untrustworthy [3- 5], and thenew studies most clearly confirm this.Studies in In April 2013, an Egyptian publication led by Professor El-Sayed Shaltout atAlexandria University found that Monsanto’s 810 Corn (Ajeeb-YG®), modifiedto express the insecticidal Bt Cry1Ab gene, has increased total protein,crude fat, crude fibre & total saccharides and decreased starch contentcompared with non- GM Ajeeb fatty acids and elements were also recorded [6]. These compositionaldifferences only gave the merest hint of the toxicity of the GM cornrevealed in previous male rat feeding studies conducted by the same teamdocumenting a wide range of organ and tissue abnormalities [7, 8]. Livercells displayed vacuolation and fatty degeneration.The kidneys had congested blood vessels and dilation of renal tubules. Thetestes showed signs of necrosis and desquamation of spermatogoneal germcells lining the seminiferous tubules. The spleens were congested withslight lymphocytic depletion. The small intestines showed hyperplasia andhyperactivation of mucous secretory glands, with necrosis of intestinalvilli.Most certainly, the GM GM and non-GM soybeans not substantially equivalentRead the rest of this report herehttp://www.i-sis.org.uk/Substantial_Non-Equivalence.phpOr read other recent reports from http://www.i-sis.org.uk/index.phpIf you find this report useful, please support ISIS by subscribing to ourmagazine Science in Society, and encourage your friends to do so.http://www.i-sis.org.uk/subscribeOr have a look at the ISIS bookstore for other publicationshttp://www.i-sis.org.uk/onlinestore/books.php